A Review article

Re-formulating the Einstein equations for stable numerical simulations: Formulation Problem in Numerical Relativity

Hisa-aki Shinkai, Gen Yoneda


50 pages, 18 figs, 98 references, LaTeX.
A review for a part of the book "Progress in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (Nova Science Publ., 2003?).

We review recent efforts to re-formulate the Einstein equations for fully relativistic numerical simulations. The so-called numerical relativity (computational simulations in general relativity) is a promising research field matching with ongoing astrophysical observations such as gravitational wave astronomy. Many trials for longterm stable and accurate simulations of binary compact objects have revealed that mathematically equivalent sets of evolution equations show different numerical stability in free evolution schemes. In this article, we first review the efforts of the community, categorizing them into the following three directions: (1) modifications of the standard Arnowitt-Deser-Misner equations initiated by the Kyoto group, (2) rewriting of the evolution equations in hyperbolic form, and (3) construction of an ``asymptotically constrained" system. We next introduce our idea for explaining these evolution behaviors in a unified way using eigenvalue analysis of the constraint propagation equations. The modifications of (or adjustments to) the evolution equations change the character of constraint propagation, and several particular adjustments using constraints are expected to diminish the constraint-violating modes. We propose several new adjusted evolution equations, and include some numerical demonstrations. We conclude by discussing some directions for future research.


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